Saturday, 27 October 2012
Guidance To Meet Lessons task komseling (BP)
Teacher: Rahmawati, S.Pd.
SMP STATE 3 MAJA
Jln. No. Cipicung. 01 Sub Maja Majalengka 45,461
Thank God we prayed to Allah SWT who has given grace and His gift to us so we managed to finish the paper on time alhamdulillah called "courtship"
This paper contains information about the meaning of courtship or more specifically discusses the definition, types, impact caused by the courtship and appropriate solutions to prevent the things that are not desirable. With the paper is expected to provide information on all things related to dating.
We realize that the paper is still far from perfect, therefore criticism and suggestions from all stakeholders that are built for the perfection we always hoped this paper.
Finally, we would like to thank all those who have participated in the preparation of this paper from beginning to end. May Allah continue to bless all that we do. Amen.
Cipicung, 10 September 2011
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ................................................ ......................................
The results USPHS (United States Public Health Service), which began in 1955, in a report published in 1982, states that "one cigarette will shorten the age of about five and a half minutes on the smokers'. The death rate of people who smoke 10 s / d 19 cigarettes per day, 70% higher compared with non-smokers. According to data from the World Bank, cigarette consumption in Indonesia increased by 44.1% over the past seven years (1990-1997), and was ranked fourth after China, USA and Japan. More than 30 percent of the adult population in Indonesia has the habit of smoking. Not to mention the potential of school-age children to become smokers beginners (Subangun et al, 1993). The threat of lung cancer and other cancers caused by cigarette smoke toward the younger generation increasingly alarming. This is evident from the results of the National Socio-Economic Survey in 2001 and 2004 conducted the Central Bureau of Statistics, which showed an increase in the number of smokers under 19 years old.
In recent years, Indonesia has increased dramatically the number of smokers. The next generation become addicted to cigarettes, spending money that should be used to buy nutritious food, education, and health, just out to burn rod for cigarettes. On the other hand, the government seemed intent encourage increased customs taxes cigarettes and little regard for the long-term effects of cigarettes in terms of health, behavior of society, economy and education. According to WHO, the poor are the most victims of the tobacco industry for using their income to buy something that is actually harmful to health (Tempo Interactive, 31-3-2004).
Tobacco companies get huge profits includes the country's 10 richest people in the suffering of poor people who are addicted to nicotine. Cigarette companies are on the negative scale in terms of social responsibility. Their activities are damaging the economy and public health. Social awareness through advertising and sponsorship imaged is camouflage cover damage caused. Even cigarette small category, with a market share of class society "bottom", the chart continues to show up, with a marked increase in the number of workers, the amount of production with increased income (Anonymous, 2009).
Knowing the sense of smoking.
Knowing the employment relationship with the tobacco industry.
Knowing the relationship with increasing cigarette taxes.
Knowing the relationship between the tobacco industry with health problems.
Knowing the street amid the presence of the tobacco industry with employment issues, tax increases, and health problems.
Smoking is a cylinder of paper length sized between 70 to 120 mm (varies by country) with a diameter of 10 mm containing tobacco leaves that have been shredded. Cigarette burned on one end and allowed to smolder smoke that can be inhaled through the mouth on the other end. Cigarettes are usually sold in a box shaped parcel or package of paper that can be incorporated easily into a pocket. In recent years, these packs are also generally accompanied by health messages that warn smokers of the health impacts that may result from smoking, such as lung cancer or heart attack (even though in reality it is just a decoration, it is seldom obeyed).
Smoking can be divided into several types. This distinction is based on cigarette packaging materials, raw materials or contents of cigarettes, cigarette making process, and the use of filters on cigarettes are:
Cigarettes by wrapping materials:
Klobot: cigarette packaging materials such as corn leaves.
Kawung: cigarette packaging materials such as palm leaves.
Cigarettes: cigarette packaging materials such as paper
Cigars: cigarette packaging material in the form of leaf tobacco.
Cigarette based raw materials or content:
White cigarettes: cigarette raw materials or contents of tobacco leaves that were just gravy to get the effect of a particular flavor and aroma.
Cigarettes: cigarettes raw materials or contents of tobacco leaf and clove with sauce to get the effect of a particular flavor and aroma.
Cigarette Klembak: cigarette raw materials or contents of tobacco leaves, cloves and incense were dressing to get the effect of a particular flavor and aroma.
Smoking by the manufacturing process:
Hand Kretek cigarettes (SKT): cigarette manufacturing process milled or rolled by hand or by using simple tools.
Kretek Cigarette Machine (SKM): the cigarette manufacturing process uses the machine. Simply put, cigarette materials incorporated into the cigarette making machine. The resulting output engines cigarette maker in the form of cigarette sticks. Currently, cigarette making machine has been able to produce an output of about six thousand to eight thousand cigarettes a minute. Cigarette making machine, usually, associated with cigarette wrapping machine so that the resulting output is no longer in the form of cigarettes, but has been in the form of bullion pack. There is also a cigarette wrapping machine is able to produce output in the form of cigarettes in the press, the press contains 10 packs. Unfortunately, it has not found a machine capable of generating SKT because there are differences in the diameter of the base to the tip diameter SKT. At SKM, girth circumference of the base of the cigarette and cigarette ends as great.
Smoking by the use of filters:
Cigarette Filter (RF): cigarettes are at the base there is a cork.
Cigarette Non Filter (RNF): cigarettes at the base there is no cork (Anonymous, 2009).
II. The cigarette industry with employment
Indonesia's tobacco industry is an industry which absorb labor (human resources, HR). SDM takes from planting tobacco and clove plantations, drying tobacco and clove, tobacco and pelintingan perajangan cigarette factories to street vendors who sell cigarettes on the street. Indonesia's tobacco industry employment to 500,000 employees, who work directly in the factory and at all levels of the organizational structure (Self-Sufficiency, 1999).
Employment not only in the cigarette factory but when added to the number of people involved from upstream to downstream beginning with tobacco and clove farmers, cigarette wrapping paper production employees, to employees in distribution channels (retail, outlets and street vendors), the amount of energy absorbed in the industry kerjayang approximately 18 million people (Slot, 2000).
Fatwa Council of Ulama Indonesia (MUI), which forbids smoking for people with certain criteria increasingly burdensome labor problems. Fatwa indirectly affect employers in the cigarette industry. At least the sale of cigarettes is reduced and this contributes to the workforce. Many labor absorbed in the large cigarette manufacturers and a number of small factories. Of the total population of Indonesia is estimated that 60% menggantungjan life from the tobacco industry. The company receiving the most labor in the industrial sector PT Djarum cigarettes are 72,313 people, followed by PT Nojorono 9398 people, 6149 people Breadfruit cigarette company, Djambu Bol 4799 people and 1196 people Gentong Buckshot. Workers in other tobacco companies estimated 2548 people.
The facts linking cigarette industry with labor.
1. Contribution of tobacco farming in employment only 1.7 percent of the total agricultural labor. When compared with the rest of the sector (66 sectors) of the economy, contributing only 0.64 percent. In 1986 there are 199,134 workers in the tobacco industry, in 2004 the number was 258,678. The increase is only 57 544 for 18 years!!! Though tobacco revenues increased hundreds of times!
2. Wage workers in tobacco farming is only half of the wages of workers in sugarcane farming. The advantage of planting tobacco businesses are also lower than the peppers and potatoes. This fact demonstrates that tobacco farming is not substantial contribution to the Indonesian economy.
3. The average poor household expenditure on cigarettes for 12.43 percent of the total expenditures. This amount is equivalent to 15 times the expenditure for meat (0.85%), 8 times the expenditure on education (1.47%) and 6 times the expenditure on health (1.99). Household spending on cigarettes in the poorest smokers (12.6%) is also higher than in the richest household smokers (8.3%).
4. In the simulations carried out LDFEUI they concluded that increasing the income of Rp 492 billion and create 281,135 new jobs nationwide.
III. The cigarette industry with tax increase
Excise taxes are quoted State on goods and services that are considered bad as alcohol, tobacco, and gambling. This kind of taxes imposed by the State to prevent people eat or engage in activities that harm themselves without making the goods and services are illegal.
Plans to implement the cigarette tax by 25 percent of the proposed House of Representatives got a strong reaction from the tobacco companies. Tobacco companies assess counterproductive considering the imposition of the tax was not the right way to control the growth of the market and the distribution of cigarette tax enforcement affects the performance of the tobacco industry. In fact, now that the tobacco industry is a business based on labor-intensive and began passionately after a few years, battered by illegal cigarettes. During this time, to control the growth of the cigarette market, the government has set a tax imposed on each cigarette. However, the way it is still difficult to control the consumption of cigarettes because mobility is very high.
IV. The cigarette industry with health problems
Inhaling cigarette smoke for both active smokers and passive smokers have a risk. Women and men are both experiencing the same thing due to secondhand smoke exposure to various tools of his body, in addition to other risks that women face because of their gender characteristics, related to their reproductive functions. Some of the effects that arise in women are:
Early menopause, it is associated with changes in estrogen metabolism by cigarette smoke, which causes more form inactive metabolites estradiol and reduced levels of active istroil.
Increased post-menopausal osteoporosis in women smokers.
In pregnancy there is an increase incidence of uterine bleeding and premature rupture of membranes.
Babies born underweight, average weight 2000 grams lower infant if the mother smoked during pregnancy.
The children's mother smokers showed a deficiency in the development of physical, intellectual and emotional, as well as a tendency to become smokers later in life. They are also prone to respiratory infections.
Cigarette smoke from burning tobacco, which is then sucked essence and cause health problems, because cigarette smoke contains many harmful substances, such as:
Tar and cigarette smoke stimulates airway, and is buried tar canals that will lead to:
- Cough-cough or shortness of breath.
- Tar stuck in the airway can cause cancer of the airway, tongue or lips.
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Toxic gas which can result in reduced ability of blood to carry oxygen.
Nicotine stimulates the rise of adrenaline hormone that causes the kidneys of children:
- Heart palpitations
- Increased blood pressure and cholesterol levels in the blood, which is closely related to the occurrence of a heart attack.
Nicotine addiction makes the wearer (addictive), are characterized by the presence of psychoactive effects (pleasure stimulation, reduced anxiety, cognitive enhancement), compulsive use, relapse after quitting, the increased dose per cigarette consumption per stem.
Passive smoking can increase the risk of lung cancer and coronary heart disease. Moreover inhale other people's smoke can worsen the condition of people with the disease:
Chest pain due to narrowing of blood vessels in the heart.
Bronchial asthma, seen mainly in children of smokers.
Seen from the incidence of cancer is higher in smokers wives or partners who are not smokers, compared with nonsmokers isti or spouse (relative risk, 1.5%).
Irritation from cigarette smoke.
Other symptoms from smoking:
Eye irritation, headaches, dizziness, sore throat, cough and shortness of breath. Pregnant women who smoke or secondhand smoke, meyalurkan toxic substances from tobacco smoke to the fetus through the bloodstream. Nicotine cigarettes cause the fetal heart rate accelerated, causing carbon monoxide berkurangya received fetal oxygen. Children whose parents smoke are more likely to encounter suffering chest pains, ear infections, nose and throat, and they have probably doubled for hospitalization in the first year of their lives. Many people know the dangers of smoking, but not many care. Due to the dangers of smoking are not seen immediately, but a new look after a few times it is used in a long time.
V. Employment Issues, Health and Troubleshooting
The presence of the tobacco industry in Indonesia is indeed a dilemma. On one side of the cigarette industry is expected to be one source of financing for the government because the cigarette tax is recognized to have an important role in state revenues, as well as economic powerhouse also absorb a lot of manpower. On the other hand the anti-smoking campaigns for health reasons, smoking is one of the causes of health problems, so smoking can lower health status in Indonesia.
This problem should be the correct solution can solve. The middle road is taken not to harm or cause new problems. If you want to reduce cigarette consumption, the government can do that through education, for example, with the extension of education about the consequences of smoking.
The government also issued a draft Law on Control of Tobacco Products Impact Of Health (Bill PDPTTK). PDPTTK bill designed to accommodate 95% of the philosophy of the FCTC. The bill contains six important points to control tobacco consumption in Indonesia. Six points were related to price controls and taxes, total restrictions on advertising, sponsorship and promotion, health warning labeling an image, the Clean Air Act or the No Smoking Zone (KTR), inclusion of product content, as well as smuggling.
The bill also mentions a ban on children under 18 years to buy or sell tobacco products and to set tax rates on tobacco products at least 65% of the sales price. Another important chapter, any person prohibited from selling cigarettes to consumers bars, banning cigarette advertising and promotions directly or indirectly, and prohibits sponsorship of tobacco products in any activity.
Besides, the government also issued Law Decree No.. 39, 2007, in writing, setting tax rates to reduce the consumption of tobacco products and controlling its distribution, since tobacco is harmful to health. It is government policy to reduce the consumption of cigarettes and cigarette production. due to the high excise can make cigarette manufacturers think 2 times to continue to produce, and consequently the price of cigarettes will certainly expensive. So that people will think again to buy cigarettes. It will indirectly have an impact on the health of society.
Governments are required to participate in solving problems where the tobacco industry, can be by way of allocation of labor, create new jobs, provide skills to the community to be an independent business, change their tobacco crops with crops, improve customs cigarettes order cigarette consumption decreased. Governments should adopt policies on smoking as in countries such as Thailand and Singapore to write warnings on cigarette packs are also accompanied by pictures of victims of smoking, this policy will gradually reduce the number of smokers in Indonesia.
Government policy will not work properly if the lack of community participation supports. Without the awareness of the society it is impossible to be realized. Problems due to the dangers of smoking can be overcome if the cooperation between the government and society, so as to improve public health in the year 2010.
Anonymous. , 2009. Smoke Bahya effect. http://organisasi.org - Mon, 07/05/2007. Accessed on May 27, 2009.
Anonymous. , 2009. Content of smoking. Nusaindah.tripod.com. Accessed on May 27, 2009
Anonymous. , 2009. Cigarette. http://zonabiru.blogspot.com/2008/07/fakta-mengejutkan-tentang-rokok-dan.html. Accessed on May 27, 2009.
Gatra. 2000. Variety: Smoking Between Honey and Poison, Issue No. 16 VI, March 4, 2000.
Pringgoutama, Sudarto. 2002. Pathology I (General). Jakarta: Sagung Seto.
Surya. , 2009. Due Circulation desk. http://www.Surya.co.id/2009/05/25/negara-rugi-rp-2-triliun-akibat-peredaran-rokok-ilegal.html. Accessed on May 27, 2009.
Self-sufficiency. 2000. Supplements Cigarette: A New Era Indonesian Cigarette Industry, Issue No. 08/XVI/19 April - May 3, 2000.
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